Astronomical School’s Report, 2018, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 1–14

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UDC 551.21

Features of volcanoes on different Solar system bodies

Vidmachenko A.P.

The Main astronomical observatory of the NAS of Ukraine, 03143, Academician Zabolotny str., 27, Kyiv, Ukraine

Abstract

In the article features of the action of volcanoes on the bodies of the Solar system are considered. The surface of almost all bodies varies under the influence of various external and internal factors. Volcanic eruptions also create different relief structures, new types of rocks and landscapes. They differ in chemical composition, thermal state and history of the internal structure. There are three main types of volcanoes. Basalt volcanoes appear in places where new material is formed on tectonic plates. In such places, the molten rock rises from the mantle along the cracks. In this case, the lava pushes tectonic plates in different directions, and slowly flows along the surface. Before the complete cooling, the lava overcomes considerable distances. Andesite volcanoes are located where these plates are destroyed when immersed under each other. As a result of such processes, a very viscous lava rises through the faults in the plates, and bursts out onto the surface with an explosion. The third type of volcano includes cryovolcanoes or ice volcanoes. In them instead of molten rock volatile substances are erupting. These include glacial melts from water, ammonia, methane, which are called cryomagma. For the manifestation of cryovolcanic activity, these substances must be in the form of liquid or vapor. After such eruptions, under the influence of low ambient temperature, the cryomagma condenses to a solid phase. Cryovolcanoes can be formed on those objects of the solar system, where there is a lot of water. Such bodies are: dwarf planets, ice satellites, Kuiper belt objects, and the like. These include Pluto, Ceres, Titan, Enceladus, Europe, Triton, etc. Potential sources of energy for melting ice for cryovolcanoes are radioactive decay in the rock core of the object, and tidal friction. As well as translucent deposits of frozen materials that can create a subsurface greenhouse effect, with the possibility of accumulating the required heat, and the subsequent explosive eruption. Cometary nuclei can also be considered bodies of the Solar system with the presence of cryovolcanism.

Keywords: volcano; earth-type planets; dwarf planets; satellites of planets; comet nuclei; types of volcanoes

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